# NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT ANSWERS 2021

NPTEL Social Networks This course will cover various techniques for test case design, as used for testing of software artifacts including requirements, design and code.

NPTEL Social Networks is a MOOC course offered by IIIT Bangalore on the NPTEL platform. We will discuss algorithms and techniques for test case design based on graphs, logic, the syntax of programming languages, and inputs. Special techniques for testing object-oriented features and web applications will also be discussed. The course is developed by Prof. Meenakshi D’souza is currently an Associate Professor at IIIT-Bangalore. Meenakshi did her Master’s TMs in Mathematics from the University of Madras, Chennai, and her Ph. D. in Theoretical Computer Science from The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai.

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CRITERIA TO GET A CERTIFICATE

Students have to score Average assignment score = 25% of the average of the best 6 assignments out of the total 8 assignments given in the course.
Exam score = 75% of the proctored certification exam score out of 100 Final scores = Average assignment score + Exam score

Students will be eligible for CERTIFICATE ONLY IF AVERAGE ASSIGNMENT SCORE >=10/25 AND EXAM SCORE >= 30/75. If any of the 2 criteria are not met, the student will not get the certificate even if the Final score >= 40/100.

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 12 ANSWERS:-

Q1. In myopic search, the expected number of steps needed to reach target E[X] when α

Q2. “When applying the standard k-shell decomposition to uncover the core of several example social networks, the resulting “innermost” structure is most likely to represent the “core” of complex networks.”

Q3. Myopic search constructs an exponentially smaller path i.e. proportional to ___?

Q4. Which of the following statement is True?

Q5. What is the time complexity of core number algorithm?

Q6. “The k-core subgraphs need to be necessarily connected”

Q7. The graph is composed of _ cliques (complete subgraphs) of size that are connected by a node x with a degree of 2.

Q8. Let nmax and mmax be the number of vertices and number of edges in the degeneracy-core, how can the density of the degeneracy-core be defined?

Q9. “The core number algorithm is an exponential time algorithm”

Q10. If a graph fits in memory, what is the running time complexity of core decomposition algorithm?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 11 ANSWERS:-

Q1. In a small world, what is the expected distance between any two random nodes?

Q2. Why is the Milgram’s experiment known as Six degrees of separation experiment?

Q3. Which of the following are false facts about large networks from the Milgram’s experiment?

Q4. “According to Watts-Strogatz small-world network, Introducing a tiny amount of randomness–in the form of long-range weak ties is enough to make the world “small” with short paths between every pair of nodes.”

Q5. What is the main difference between a small world and a random world?

Q6. “In a 2-D Watts-Strogatz model, for an efficient decentralised search, the ideal value of clustering exponent is 2 so that random links follow an inverse-square distribution.”

Q7. The Watt-Strogatz model creates a network of nodes using which of the concept?

Q8. In which of the following model, one end of each edge is rewired to another vertex independently and with probability p to a new vertex chosen randomly.

Q9. The Watts-Strogatz model corresponds to the special case of Kleinberg’s decentralized search model where q = ?

Q10. In decentralized search, the ___________ ties help one to better explore a region and the ____________ties allow one to search far away regions of the network.

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 10 ANSWERS:-

Q1. How the number of in-links to a given page be distributed?

Q2. Which of the following is true?

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Q3. What is the fraction of web pages having in-degree k?

Q4. Which of the following are examples of scale-free networks?

Q5. “Curves of the type where the variable on the x-axis represents rank and y-axis represents frequency have no history”

Q6. Which of the following properties differentiate spread of epidemic from spread of idea?

Q7. Which of the following is not an example of percolation?

Q8. An individual node in the branching process model goes through three potential stages during the course of the epidemic. Which one of the following describes a infectious stage?

Q9. Which of the following is true related to SIS model?

Q10. “We can combine elements of the SIR and SIS models in a simple way, so that after an infected node recovers, it passes briefly through the R state on its way back to the S state.”

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 9 ANSWERS:-

Q1. “The degree dv of vertex v is its number of incident edges”

Q2. “The degree sequence __ specify the graph”

Q3. The shape of the Normal Curve is ___________

Q4. Normal Distribution is applied for ___________

Q5. Which of the following is the ingredient in generating power law?

Q6. “New nodes prefer to attach to well-connected nodes over less-well connected nodes”

Q7. Which of the following is true for random network and real-world network?

Q8. Which of the following is true?

Q9. Suppose P(k) denotes the degree distribution of the network in figure 1, what is the value of P(2)+P(3)?

Q10. Which of the following curve is the sure litmus test for detecting power law in a network?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 8 ANSWERS:-

Q1. Which of the following statements is/are true?

Q2. “Hub and Authority are Exclusionary”

Q3. The main page of a site usually has ______ hub and _______ authority scores.

Q4. What will be the page rank of nodes in figure 1?

Q5. If a network of n nodes is strongly connected, how many sets of equilibrium values exist?

Q6. Which of the following is/are a dangling node in figure 2?

Q7. While performing k hub-authority updates in Principle of Repeated Improvement process, what will happen if we use larger and larger values of k?

Q8. Which of the following properties are related to Markov matrix A?

Q9. What happens to the magnitude of the hub and authority values with each update in hub authority computation?

Q10. Which of the following is correct with respect to normalizing weights in hubs and authorities?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 7 ANSWERS:-

Q1. What will be the incentive given to nodes if they chose different behaviours?

Q2. State true or false:
“Homophily can never serve as a barrier to diffusion”

Q3. What are the factors which influence model diffusion?

Q4. Why do people generally follow a company’s page?

Q5. If d is the number of neighbours and p is fraction of neighbours which adopt node A, when can it be said that A is the better choice?

Q6. Under what condition, do we say that set of initial adopters cause a complete cascade at threshold q?

Q7. Which of the following is an example of social reinforcement?

Q8. State true or false:
“An effective viral marketing campaign requires that marketers identify individuals with high social networking potential.”

Q9. Suppose every player in a game is given a payoff a and b based on two actions, A and B. Now, there are two friends Monika and Phoebe; Monika decides to adopt action A while Phoebe decides to adopt action B. What are the payoffs that they get?

Q10. Consider two actions X and Y. The payoff associated with the action X is 40 while the payoff associated with action Y is 10. In such a case, what is the threshold fraction of neighbours that should have adopted X, in order for a node to adopt the action X?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 6 ANSWERS:-

Q2. Which of the following statement is true regarding web graph?

Q3. On which scale, Page rank is calculated?

Q4. What is (are) the problem(s) associated with a random surfer while calculating page rank?

Q5.What will the following line of code return? nx.pagerank(g)

Q6. Which of the following is true regarding page rank?

Q7. Let algorithm 1 denotes the equal coin distribution (A1) and algorithm 2 denotes the random coin dropping (A2), which of the following is true?

Q8. What is the function of the following line of code? g = add_edges(g, 0.4)

Q9. How much time does naïve computation of random walk measure usually requires?

Q10. Given a graph g and points on random walk, what does the function X depict?
def X(g, points):
t = np.array(points)
t = np.argsort(-t)
return t

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 5 ANSWERS:-

Q1. Which of the following is correct with respect to Schelling’s model?

Q2. In Schelling’s model, every agent has threshold value of at least ________:

Q3. In the figure 1, according to Schelling’s model, Find the similarity ratio for X in case

Q4. When can a signed graph be considered as balanced?

Q5. Two of my close friends hate each other, what kind of triangular relationship structure is this?

Q6. “A complete graph with 6 vertices is unbalanced if it is having all positive edges having relationship with one random edge being negative.”

Q7. In which of the following conditions, a triangular network is stable?

Q8. Which of the triangles in figure 2 does not show the social belief that ‘friend of a friend is a friend’?

Q9. As the threshold decreases, the chances of agents being happy with their current location _______:

Q10. At more general level, Schelling model be viewed as an example of _________?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4 ANSWERS:-

Q1. Among which of the following, the individual characteristics drive the formation of links?

Q2. Consider the following two statements:
S1: the neighbourhood overlap of two editors in the bipartite affiliation network of editors and articles, consisting only of edges from editors to the articles they’ve edited.    S2: measure of similarity of editors.

Q3. If A = {5, 6, 7} and B = {6, 7, 10, 12}; then calculate the similarity measure between A and B.

Q4. Which of the following statements are/ is true?

Q5. With regards to fatman evolutionary model, which of the following is correct?

Q6. If get_person_nodes(G) assigns nodes to each person in a graph, what does the following code implement?
pnodes = get_person_nodes(G) for u in pnodes: for v in pnodes: if (u != v): diff = abs(G.nodes[u][‘name’] – G.nodes[v][‘name’]) p = 1 / (diff + 1000) r = random.uniform(0, 1) if (r < p):

Q7. Which of the following links are not possible in context to closure?

Q8. When plotted on a graph, the similarity measure curve is ____________ after the time at which two people started a conversation than the time after which they started conversing.

Q9. Which of the following statement is true?
S1: if two people participate in a shared focus, this provides them with an opportunity to become friends;
S2: if two people are friends, they can influence each other’s choice of foci.

Q10. Considering circles as people and triangles as the corporate boards to which people belong to, what does the figure 1 denote?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 3 ANSWERS:-

Q1. Which of the following is/are true in case of providing any opportunity?

Q2. Which of the following is correctly defined by the following statement?
If two people in a social network have a friend in common, then there is an increased likelihood that they will become friends themselves at some point in the future

Q3. Which of the following is/are true related to local bridge?

Q4. Which of the following indicate the absence of a structural hole?

Q5. Which of the following statement is correct regarding LinkedIn?

Q6. Which of the following input file formats does graphi allow?

Q7. Out of the following matrices, which of these can be used to depict a graph?

Q8. Which of the following indicate the absence of a structural hole?

Q9. What is the clustering coefficient for node 2?

Q10. Given 6 employees in a company, what are the number of ways that they will know each other?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 2 ANSWERS:-

Q1. Road network is a ________ network whereas email network is a _______ network.chable in a graph?

Q2.Which of the following is the most commonly used format for datasets?

Q3. Which of the following file formats can be read using read_pajek() function?

Q4. Which of the following function is used to calculate the average of the clustering coefficients?

Q5. Gephi is written in which of the following languages?s defined and met in graphs-based structural coverage criteria?

Q6. If a simple graph G, contains n vertices and m edges, the number of edges in the Graph G’(Complement of G) is ___________?

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Q7. All trees with n vertices consists of n-1 edges.

Q8. If n is the number of nodes, what is the minimum number of edges needed to make graph connected?

Q9. What will be the diameter of a complete graph of 15 nodes?

Q10. For a undirected network G made of 3 nodes and 2 edges, what will be the density ρ(G)?

## NPTEL Social Networks ASSIGNMENT WEEK 1 ANSWERS:-

Q1. What is the number of edges present in a complete graph having ‘n’ vertices?

Q2. Which of the following functions is used to remove all edges and nodes in a graph in NetworkX?

Q3. What will be the output of the following Python code? t = (1, 2, 4, 3, 8, 9) [t[i] for i in range(0, len(t), 2)]

Q4. In which line there(s) is an error?  G = nx.Graph()  // line 1  G.add_node(1) // line 2  G.add_node(“Hello”) // line 3  G.add_node(2.0) // line 4

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Q5. Which of the following graphs are isomorphic to each other?

Q6. What is the value of the sum of minimum in-degree and maximum out-degree of a Directed Acyclic Graph?

Q7. Assuming the value of every weight to be greater than 10, in which of the following cases the shortest path of a directed weighted graph from 2 vertices ‘u’ and ‘v’ will never change?

Q8. In the given graph which edge should be removed to make it a Bipartite Graph?